The F3UES project

Welcome to the web site for the F3UES project.

F3UES stands for Fragments, Functions, Flows & Urban Ecosystem Services, and the F3UES project was a research study looking at how the biodiversity of towns and cities contributes to human well-being.  The project started in Sept 2012, and officially ended in April 2017, though publications from the project will continue to come out over the next 12-24 months, and this website will remain to make these available.

F3UES was carried out by Cranfield University, The University of Sheffield, The University of Exeter, and the British Trust for Ornithology, along with a range of partner organisations.

This website provides background on the project and a full catalogue of the published scientific, and other, outputs the project has produced and contributed to.  All the outputs will be found via the Outputs, news and other musings item in the menu, or the quick links on the right hand side of each page.


What are Urban Ecosystem Services?  “Ecosystem services” is a phrase which refers to all the benefits we, as humans, get from the other living systems on the planet – everything from food and water to recreation and climate regulation.  In this project we are trying to understand better how these services are provided in urban areas.

Why Fragments, Functions and Flows? In urban areas, green space tends to be divided up into small pieces, by roads, buildings and other human uses of the land.  So in order to understand how ecosystem services are provided, we need to understand what determines the functions of individual fragments of greenspace, and how these are linked together by flows of materials, organisms, and people.

The F3UES project was  part of a bigger research programme – Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (BESS), funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council. The aim of BESS was to improve our understanding of how biodiversity supports the provision of ecosystem services in four key types of UK landscape:  uplands, lowland agricultural landscapes, coastal wetlands and urban areas.   F3UES worked on the last of these, but you can find about about the other projects from their individual web sites:

CBESS (coastal wetlands)

DURESS (uplands)

Wessex BESS (lowland agricultural)